• Users Online: 699
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-14

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Breast Cancer Among Women from Rural Practice Area of A Tertiary Care Centre: An Experience from Rural Bihar


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, India
2 Additional Professor, Department of Community Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, India
3 Profs & Head, Department of Community Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, India
4 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, India
5 Additional Professor, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, IGIMS, Patna, India
6 Senior Resident, Department of Community Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, India

Date of Web Publication12-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay Kumar Choudhary
Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Choudhary SK, Kumar S, Yadava D K, Bharati DR, Pankaj S, Rajak BK. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Breast Cancer Among Women from Rural Practice Area of A Tertiary Care Centre: An Experience from Rural Bihar. J Indira Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2016;2:10-4

How to cite this URL:
Choudhary SK, Kumar S, Yadava D K, Bharati DR, Pankaj S, Rajak BK. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Breast Cancer Among Women from Rural Practice Area of A Tertiary Care Centre: An Experience from Rural Bihar. J Indira Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Oct 5];2:10-4. Available from: http://www.jigims.co.in/text.asp?2016/2/1/10/303360




  Introduction: Top


Breast cancer is the one of the most common cancers and a major cause of mortality among women worldwide. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States accounting for 32 per cent of all female cancers. Breast cancer is responsible for 18 per cent of cancer deaths in women and is second only to lung cancer.[1] Nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012(second most common cancer overall). This represent about 12 % of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancer cases in women.[2] However, the vast majority of breast cancer cases occur in women who have no identifiable risk factors other than their gender.[3] The risk of breast cancer is higher in middle-aged and elderly women than in young women.[4],[5] This risk increases as a woman ages, rising sharply after the age of 40.

The screening method usually being Breast self- Examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. BSE is inexpensive and can be done by women herself. It is important to know the level of awareness among women & of common screening tests used to detect breast cancer at early stage. Present study was conducted to know the awareness and screening test done for early detection of breast cancer among women residing in rural area.


  Objective: Top


  1. To know the knowledge and attitude regarding the Breast cancer among women between 20-40 years of age group.


  2. To know the knowledge, attitude and practice of Brest Self-Examination for breast cancer among women between 20-40 years of age group.



  Material and Methods:- Top


PLACE OF STUDY: The present study was carried out in Rural Training Health centre (RTHC), Maner, rural field practice area of IGIMS Medical College, Patna.

STUDY POPULATION: Women aged between 20-40 years coming for measles vaccination to their child were enrolled.

STUDY DESIGN: It was a cross sectional study to know the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Breast Cancer among women between 20-40 years of age group.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: All the women aged between 20-40 years belonging to Maner and coming for measles vaccination to their child, were Counselled and included in the study.


  Exclusion Criteria: Top


  1. Those women not willing to participate in the study.
  2. Women less than 40 and above 40 years


A cross sectional survey was conducted from June 2014 to November 2015 at RTHC, Maner. A total of 240 females aged between 20-40 years with no personal history of breast cancer were enrolled in the study. A verbal consent was taken from all the women who agreed to participate in the study. A semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaires were included questions on socio- demographic status and specific questions about knowledge of common symptoms and signs of breast cancer, as well as attitude towards breast cancer and practice of breast self-examination (BSE). The questions were completely closed- ended with multiple choice questions and check list with an option of a free response when such responses are not in the checklist. Data analysis was done as descriptive statistics.


  Results: Top


A total of 240 study subjects enrolled in the study. 35.83% of females were belong to the age group 20-24 years followed by (25.83%) for 25-29 years and (25%) 35-40 years respectively. Majority 189 (78.75%) of them were married and 213 (88.75%) were Hindus. Educational status of the respondents showed that almost one third were illiterate (31.66%) followed by primary level education (20.83%), secondary level education (19.16%) and least (7.91%) were graduates respectively. More than half were farmers/labours 127 (52.91%) followed by housewife/student 98 (40.83%) and self-employed 15 (6.25%). Only 1 (0.41%) female had a positive family history of breast cancer. [Table 1]
Table 1: Demographic profile of women

Click here to view


More than one third (37.50%) of the total respondents had heard of breast cancer. Information on breast cancer was obtained through their friends (42.22%) and television (22.22%). Out of the 90 respondents who were aware of breast cancer, 24 (26.66%) perceive as being brought about by a medical condition, 10 (11.11%) old age, 10 (11.11%) diet, 8 (8.88%) spiritual, 6 (6.66%) hereditary and 2 (2.5%) because of excessive breast feeding. Most of the females perceive weight loss (40%) as the major condition of breast cancer followed by lump in the breast (22.22%), bleeding nipples (15.55%) and about 20 (22.22%) were unaware of any of the symptoms. About 29 (32.22%) of the females believe that the breast cancer can be treated if it is diagnosed early whereas 9 (10%) females perceive that there is no treatment for breast cancer and about 52(57.77 %) did not know about the treatment. (16.66%) 15 females were aware of Breast Self- Examination as a method for detection of breast cancer, while only 9 (10%) practice Breast Self- Examination.[Table 2]
Table 2: Distribution of subjects according to their knowledge

Click here to view


It shows that 50 (55.55%) and 49 (54.44%) of the women’s respondents not agreed that breast cancer patients should be isolated or it is a punishment from God, while 58 (64.44%) of them agreed that breast cancer patients should be allowed to live freely in the community and to be supported 72 (80%). 40 (44.44%) agree that Breast cancer patients should not be allowed to breast feed whereas about 32 (35.55%) disagree to it. [Table 3]
Table 3: Assessment of attitude towards Breast Cancer

Click here to view



  Discussion: Top


The present study was done among 240 females between the age group of 20-40 years in rural field practice area Maner attached to IGIMS medical college, Patna. A significant number of females belong to the age group 20-24 year (35.83%) and about 189 (78.75%) females were married. Most of them 213 (88.75%) were Hindus. Educational status of the respondents showed that almost one third of the female were illiterate (31.66%). Majority of the females were farmers/labours 127 (52.91%) followed by Housewife/student 98 (40.83%) and the least were self-employed 15 (6.25%) respectively.

National screening program for breast cancer is not established well in our country. As we can clearly see in our present study that only 90 (37.50%) of the total respondents have heard of breast cancer as a disease. Same observation were noted by a study done by P Somdatta[6] in New Delhi where in 56% of the respondents were know about breast cancer as a disease and a study done by Babatunji Omotara[7] in Nigeria showed that about 58% of the respondents were know about breast cancer as a disease. Another study carried out by Okobia[8] in Southern Nigeria it is reported that the knowledge score was about 42.3% and only 21.4% on awareness of breast cancer.

The finding of the study showed that only 1 (0.41%) female had a positive family history of breast cancer. Similar observations were noted in a study done by S Puri[9] among North Indian Women which showed that nearly 85% did not have a positive history of Breast Cancer.

Subjects obtained their information on breast cancer through their friends (42.22%) and television (22.22%). Similar observation were noted by a study done by N. K Irurhe et al[10] in Nigeria it showed about 30.5% of the females got aware of the breast cancer through Television/Radio and about 8.5% through friends. Whereas a study done by D. V. Bala et al[11] done in Ahmedabad showed that the main sources of knowledge were health professionals (34.4%), magazines (32.8%) and media (14%).

Out of the 90 respondents who were aware of breast cancer, 24 (26.66%) perceive the cause as being brought about by a medical condition, 10 (11.11%) old age, 10 (11.11%) diet, 8 (8.88%) spiritual, 6(6.66%) hereditary and 2 (2.22%) because of excessive breast feeding. Similar observations were noted by a study done by Omotara et al7 in Nigeria which show that (21.4%) perceive the cause as being brought religious reason. More excessive breast feeding (2.3%), diet (5.1%), medical condition (28.2%) and old age (2.6%). Whereas a study done by Somadatta et al6 in New Delhi showed that 3% women thought breast feeding is a risk factor. Other factors that were mentioned were obesity (11%), excessive intake of fat (1%) and old age (4.9%).

Most of the females perceive weight loss (40%) as the major symptom of breast cancer followed by lump in the breast (22.22%), bleeding nipples (15.55%)and about 20 (22.22%) were unaware of any of the symptoms. About 29 (32.22%) of the females believe if breast cancer diagnosed early then it can be treated whereas 9 (10%) females perceive that there is no treatment for breast cancer and about 52 (57.77%) did not knew about the treatment. Whereas a study done by KC Kanaga[12] in Malaysia revealed that 72% know that bloody discharge from the nipple was abnormal, while 76.8% know that there is an relation between lumps and breast cancer.

The findings of the study showed that only 15 (16.66%) females were know about Breast Self- Examination as a method for detection of breast cancer, while only 9 (10%) practice Breast Self- Examination. Whereas study done by Anita Khokhar[13] in New Delhi showed that only 36% had heard the term breast self-examination while only 13.37% practice Breast self-Examination.

It had been seen that 50 (55.55%) and 49 (54.44%) of the female respondents not agreed that breast cancer patients should be isolated or it is a punishment from God respectively, while 58 (64.44%) of them agreed that breast cancer patients should be allowed to live freely in the community and to be supported 72 (80%). 40 (44.44%) agree that breast cancer patients should not be allowed to breast feed whereas about 32 (35.55%) disagreed to it. Whereas a study done by Omotara et al[7] in Nigeria which showed that the attitude of the respondents regarding risk factors of breast cancer is troublesome with 20.3% still believing that breast cancer is a punishment from God which is similar to the reasons reported in the study by Ibrahim and Odusnaya[14]. Even more worrisome is the finding that almost a quarter of respondents 22.9% and 21.2% agreed that breast cancer patients should be isolated and not allowed to live freely in the community respectively.


  CONCLUSION: Top


The results of this study have demonstrated the extremely very low grade of awareness among women of rural area of Maner. Emphasis should be given on encouraging women to self-breast examination practice. Health education awareness program should be targeted at women through various media including leaflets, television, and radio. In addition health education should be channelled through women friendly agencies/organizations such as government and private hospital & clinic and women’s self-help groups. Available data suggest that the people preferred to know about knowledge of breast cancer related cases from their doctors and health organizations. Within the hospitals, we suggest that breast cancer awareness program must be integrated into health education programs. We recommended that a policy guidelines be followed and enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of knowledge about early detection of breast cancer. In addition, doctors should endeavour to educate women on “breast cancer awareness” during regular physician visits for other health issues.



 
  References Top

1.
Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, Edwards BK (eds).SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1999, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1973_1999/, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on 13/12/2013.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kelsey JL, Gammon MD. Epidemiology of breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 1990,12:228-240.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wu SC, Hotes J, Fulton JP, Chen VW, Howe HL, Correa C, editors. Cancer in North America, 1995-1999. Volume III: NAACCR Combined Cancer Incidence Rates. Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Edwards BK, Howe HL, Ries LA, Thun MJ, Rosenberg HM, Yancik R, Wingo PA, Jemal A, Feigal EG. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1999, featuring implications of age and aging on U.S. cancer burden. Cancer 2002,94 (10):2766-2792.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Somadatta P, Baridalyne N. Awareness of breast cancer in women of an urban resettlement colony. Indian J Cancer. 2008; 45:149-53. Available from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp? 2008/45/4/149/44662.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Omotara B, Yahya S, Amodu M, Bimba J. Awareness, Attitude and Practice of Rural Women regarding Breast Cancer in Northeast Nigeria. J Community Med Health Educ 2012; 2(5):148.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Okobia TM, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, Osime U. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer. World J Surg Oncology.2006; 4:11  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
S Puri, C Mangat, V Bhatia, M Kalia, A Sehgal, A Kaur. Awareness Of Risk Factors And Aspects of Breast Cancer Among North Indian Women. The Internet Journal of Health. 2008; 8(2).  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
N. K Irurhe, S.B. Raji, O.A. Olowoyeye, A.O. Adeyomoye, R.A. Arogundade, K.O. Soyebi et al. A study done on Knowledge and Awareness of Breast Cancer among Female Secondary School Students in Nigeria. Academic Journal of Cancer Research 2012; 5 (1): 01-05.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
D. V. Bala, Hemanth Gameti. An educational intervention study of breast self-examination (BSE) In 250 women beneficiaries of urban health centre of west Zone of Ahmedabad. Health line journal. July- December. 2011; 2(2).available from the following URL www.iapsmgc.orgwww.iapsmgc.org/index_pdf/46.pdf  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
KC Kanaga,J Nithiya, MFV Noor Shatirah. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Screening Procedures Among Malaysian Women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2011; 12:1965-1967.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Anita Khokhar. Level of Awareness Regarding Breast Cancer and its Screening amongst Indian Teachers. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 10: 247-250.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ibrahim MT, Odusanya PO. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female, Healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Cancer 2009; 9:76.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Introduction:
Objective:
Material and Met...
Exclusion Criteria:
Results:
Discussion:
CONCLUSION:
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed743    
    Printed22    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded56    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]