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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-11

Chronic kidney disease in children


Department of Nephrology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Vikash Kumar Pandey
Room No: 14, Department of Nephrology, Old Administrative Block, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sheikhpura, Patna - 800 014, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jigims.jigims_11_20

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue globally. Although not so common in children, its impact can be devastating with long-term consequences. Syndromal association, congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, and other congenital anomalies usually present in childhood and have more impact in this population. Issues such as growth retardation, hormonal imbalance, psychosocial development, and transitions to adult care are specific to children and need to be addressed appropriately. With CKD, their nutritional requirement is quite different from adults and needs more careful planning and dietary modification to avoid growth retardation in these patients. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs including immunosuppressants also differ from adults and need special considerations. Kidney transplantation is the best treatment modality available for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preemptive kidney transplantation is preferred to prevent growth retardation and psychosocial maladaptations in children with ESRD. Because lymphoid system development is on peak in adolescents and developing children, they are at high risk of graft rejection. Poor adherence to medication and recurrence of primary disease also affects long-term prognosis in adolescents adversely.


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