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 Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 148-151

Kuppuswamy and Prasad's socioeconomic status scale: An update for base year 2016 and May 2021


1 Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
2 Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India

Date of Submission16-Jul-2021
Date of Decision13-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance01-Nov-2021
Date of Web Publication6-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Shardhanjali Sinha
Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jigims.jigims_32_21

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  Abstract 


Socioeconomic status (SES) is the predictor of the health status of an individual and a nation at large. It is one of the modifiable risk factors, measured by many researchers for estimating its impact on multiple health indicators. The actual impact of SES can only be estimated by updating the SES scale in accordance with the factors subsisting in the present scenario. Among all socioeconomic parameters, income is considered as the core parameter of SES that keeps on changing its value over time. The income of an individual or a household is a widely used marker to assess the socioeconomic position in all settings, either rural or urban. Therefore, we have attempted to update the income scale of the two most popular SES classification scales, i.e. Kuppuswamy and B. G. Prasad's SES scale for the base year 2016 and for the month of May 2021.

Keywords: Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale, Prasad's socioeconomic status scale, socioeconomic status, update


How to cite this article:
Sinha S, Kumar A. Kuppuswamy and Prasad's socioeconomic status scale: An update for base year 2016 and May 2021. J Indira Gandhi Inst Med Sci 2021;7:148-51

How to cite this URL:
Sinha S, Kumar A. Kuppuswamy and Prasad's socioeconomic status scale: An update for base year 2016 and May 2021. J Indira Gandhi Inst Med Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 23];7:148-51. Available from: http://www.jigims.co.in/text.asp?2021/7/2/148/331747



Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the primary factors that affect mortality and morbidity rates of a country. SES affects the accessibility, affordability, and actual utilization of healthcare services, which ultimately determine the health and nutritional status of a country.[1] Several SES scales have been used by the researchers to measure the socioeconomic position of an individual or a household, specifically for rural and urban populations. The socioeconomic profile of the population is assessed by using various parameters of SES such as occupation, education, and income. The Kuppuswamy SES scale is based on three socioeconomic parameters, i.e. family income, education and occupation of the head of the family, which has been widely using for the urban population.[2] B. G. Prasad's SES scale is based on the per capita monthly income of a household and it is suitable for both rural and urban populations.[3]

A periodic modification in these SES scales is necessary to get an up-to-date estimation of all socioeconomic factors subsisting in the present time and space. With the passing time, the original income range fixed by any scale needs a revision. The updated value of income scale can be calculated on the basis of current consumer price index and linking factor for the revised base year. The consumer price index for industrial workers (CPI-IW) is used as an indicator of inflation for common people of our country as it signifies the expenditure of a normal working-class family.[4] Several attempts were made earlier for the periodic modification of Kuppuswamy and B. G. Prasad's SES classification scale.[3],[5] Here, we have attempted to update the income scale of Kuppuswamy and B. G. Prasad's SES scale for the base year 2016 and for May 2021 by using the linking factor for base year 2016 and CPI-IW for May 2021.


  Modification in the Income Range of Kuppuswamy Socioeconomic Status Scale Top


The modification in Kuppuswamy original income scale for the base year 1982 (on the basis of conversion factor) was done earlier in 2010.[6] The computation of updated income scale for the base year 1982, 2001, 2016, and current year 2021 is delineated below [Table 1]:
Table 1: Modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale for May 2021

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  • The updated income scale value for base year 1982 = 1976 original value × [100 (CPI-IW for base year 1982)/60.408 (conversion factor)]
  • The updated income scale value for base year 2001 = 1976 original value × [100 (CPI-IW for base year 1982)/60.408 (conversion factor)] ×4.63 (linking factor for base year 2001)
  • The updated income scale value for base year 2016 = 1976 original value × [100 (CPI-IW for base year 1982)/60.408 (conversion factor)] ×4.63 (linking factor for base year 2001) ×2.88 (linking factor for base year 2016)
  • The multiplication factor for May 2021 = 120.6 (CPI-IW for May 2021)/100 = 1.206
  • The updated income scale value for May 2021 = 1976 original value × [100 (CPI-IW for base year 1982)/60.408 (conversion factor)] ×4.63 (linking factor for base year 2001) ×2.88 (linking factor for base year 2016) ×1.206 (multiplication factor for May 2021).



  Modification in Income Range of B. G. Prasad'S Socioeconomic Status Scale Top


In 2010, the modification in income scale of B. G. Prasad was done on the basis of the linking factor released for the base years 1982 and 2001.[6] The linking factors for the base years 1982, 2001, and 2016 are 4.93, 4.63, and 2.88, respectively. The multiplication factor for the year 2021 is calculated with the help of CPI-IW (120.6) for May month released on the last working day of coming month, i.e., June 30, 2021.[4] The calculation of updated income scale value for the base year 2016 and current year 2021 is explained below [Table 2]:
Table 2: Modified Prasad's socioeconomic status scale for May 2021

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  • The updated income scale value for the base year 2016 = 1960 original value × 4.93 (linking factor for base year 1982) ×4.63 (linking factor for base year 2001) ×2.88 (linking factor for base year 2016)
  • The updated income scale value for May 2021 = 1960 original value × 4.93 (linking factor for base year 1982) ×4.63 (linking factor for base year 2001) ×2.88 (linking factor for base year 2016) ×1.206 (multiplication factor for year 2021).


The revision of these SES scales in accordance with the revised base year is very important. With the help of the updated SES scale, we can easily classify, compare, and assess the current socioeconomic position of a population. The latest update for the month of May 2021 will be applicable till the release of CPI-IW for next month (June 2021). Update for upcoming month/year can be calculated by putting the value of multiplication factor for that period in the below-mentioned formula:

  • Income scale value for base year 2016 × Multiplication factor (CPI-IW for the particular month or year/100).


Note: The above formula is valid until the current base year (2016) will not be revised again.

Although SES is dynamic in nature, it is a significant factor in the persistence of health disparities between different SES strata. An updated socioeconomic classification is essential to recognize the stratification of substantive risk factors for deteriorating health conditions in a particular SES category. It provides a way to assess the allocation of necessary health resources and personnel to those SES categories that actually deserve it. Based on the health gradients subsisting in different SES strata, a sustainable, evidence-based intervention can be designed; simultaneously, the effectiveness of ongoing policies can be enhanced.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.







 
  References Top

1.
Aggarwal OP, Bhasin SK, Sharma AK, Chhabra P, Agarwal K, Rajoura OP. A new instrument (scale) for measuring the socioeconomic status of a family: Preliminary study. Indian J Community Med 2005;30:111-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kuppuswamy B. Manual of Socioeconomic Status (Urban). Vol. 8. Delhi: Manasayan; 1981. p. 66-72.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dalvi TM, Khairnar MR, Kalghatgi SR. An update of B.G. Prasad and Kuppuswamy socio-economic status classification scale for Indian population. Indian J Pediatr 2020;87:567-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. Available from: http://www.labourbureaunew.gov.in. [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 14].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Patro BK, Jeyashree K, Gupta PK. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale 2010-The need for periodic revision. Indian J Pediatr 2012;79:395-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Vasudevan J, Mishra AK, Singh Z. An update on B. G. Prasad's socioeconomic scale: May 2016. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:4183-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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